| dod & usgov
| other research
| articles & statements
see also the handbooks and other references
see also the articles on competencies page
see also the AWC gateway to lessons learned
- Air University Research ___[return to top]
- Strategic Leadership - Defining the Challenge, by Guillot, in Winter 2003 Air and Space Power Journal
- Commanding an Air Force Squadron in the Twenty-First Century - a Practical Guide of Tips and Techniques for Today's Squadron Commander, by Smith, published by AU Press, Aug 2003
- Winning the Retention Wars - the Air Force, Women Officers, and the Need for Transformation, by DiSilverio, published by AU Press, Aug 2003
- American Airpower Biography, over two dozen pioneers and leaders, nicely done by Col Phillip Meilinger
- Sharing Success - Owning Failure: Preparing to Command in the 21st Century Air Force, by Goldfein, published by AU Press
Leadership related research at Air University - selected papers below
- Hispanics: an Untapped Leadership Resource, AWC research paper
- Centralized Command - Decentralized Execution: Implications of Operating in a Network Centric Warfare Environment, AWC research paper
- 360-Degree Feedback: Key to Translating Air Force Core Values Into Behavioral Change, AWC research paper
- Gender Differences and Leadership: A Study, AWC research paper
- Challenge of 21st Century Leadership: The Cornerstone and Future Building Blocks, AWC research paper
- Divided Loyalties: Civil-Military Relations at Risk, AWC research paper
- Growing Tomorrow's Leaders in Today's Environment, AWC research paper
- Purple Virtues: Curing Unhealthy Interservice Rivalry, AWC research paper
- The New Militia Tradition and the Traditional Air National Guard Commander, AWC research paper
- The Paradoxical Paradigm: Aviation Leadership, 1918-1926: How William Moffett Changed the Navy and How Billy Mitchell Prevented the Formation of a Separate Air Force, AWC research paper
- US Foreign Policy Decision Making During the 1973 Arab-Israeli Conflict: Its Impact on Soviet-Egyptian Foreign Policy Relations, AWC research paper
- Developing Aerospace Leaders for the Twenty-first Century, Air Force Fellow research paper
- Fall of the Fighter Generals: The Future of USAF Leadership, SAAS research paper
- Innovative Problem Solving in USAF Officer PME Curriculum, ACSC research paper
- McPeak's Follies - a Comprehensive Look at Rated Management in the 90's and Beyond, ACSC research paper
- Hierarchical Leadership Behaviors of USAF Majors at ACSC, ACSC research paper
This study made tentative first steps towards empirically determining what behaviors Air Force majors perceive to be critical to job accomplishment and successful leadership. It is also discovered significant differences between operations and support officer views on the importance of different leadership behaviors.
- Ten Propositions Regarding Leadership, ACSC research paper
- The Teaching of Leadership: a Comparative Analysis, ACSC research paper
- Revolt of the Admirals, Survival of the Aircraft Carrier: 1945-1950, ACSC research paper
- Moral Leadership in an Increasingly Amoral Society: Is the United States Military Value System Suitable in Contemporary America?, ACSC research paper
- Leadership Behaviors at Air War College, a study of leadership behaviors needed at the strategic level in the Air Force, ACSC research paper
- Improving Leadership Through Better Decision Making: Fostering Critical Thinking, ACSC research paper
- Promoting Critical Thinking In Professional Military Education, ACSC research paper
- The Freeman Field Mutiny: A Study in Leadership, ACSC research paper
- Improving Communications between Senior AF Leadership and Troops in the Field, ACSC research paper
- Leadership and Gender: Are There Correlations Between Male and Female Traits Found in Successful Leaders?, ACSC research paper
- Mentoring of Women in the USAF, ACSC research paper
- Mentoring Women and Minority Officers in the US Military, ACSC research paper
- A Military Leadership Analysis of Adolf Hitler, ACSC research paper
- Strategic Leadership Development: An Operation Domain Application, ACSC research paper
- Other DoD and USGov Research and Papers ___[return to top]
- The Effect of Toxic Leadership (local copy), by Aubrey, paper at Army War College, Mar 2012
- When focusing on toxic leadership, many researchers emphasize the symptoms of toxicity (individual characteristics, traits) and not the disease (culture, climate, outcomes). Although characteristics and traits may be helpful in identify toxic leaders, they fall short of a holistic view by failing to identify or discuss how an organization’s culture may contribute to toxicity in its leaders. Culture is a key strategic factor in predicting behaviors and outcomes. An organization’s culture may have a moderating effect on the behavior of its members and may ultimately serve to promote toxic behavior.
- Toxic Leadership in the Military Profession (local copy), by Box, paper at Army War College, Jan 2012
- The military wants to rid its top ranks of toxic leaders. A survey of more than 22,630 leaders from the rank of E-5 through O-6 and Department of Defense (DoD) civilians showed that roughly one in five sees his or her superior as toxic or unethical.
- This paper highlights the nature, frequency, severity, and trepidations of toxic leadership in the military and recommends three strategies for adoption to shape a more positive and effective leadership culture and policy for the future.
- 21st Century Small Unit Leaders: Developing the Ultimate Smart Power Weapon (local copy), by Gideons, paper at Joint Forces Staff College, Joint Advanced Warfighting School (JAWS), 17 June 2011
- Globalization and the information age have created an environment in which small unit leaders have operational and strategic importance. The demands of the Irregular Warfare require small unit leaders within the General Purpose Forces to be more culturally aware; intellectually adaptable; seasoned in their decision-making requiring fundamental changes in the way they are educated, trained, and gain experience. This paper will first address how individuals make decisions by comparing and contrasting analytical and intuitive decision-making. Second, it will address the strengths and weaknesses in current training and educational paradigms via an analysis of the Systems Approach to Training. Third will be a proposal for the inclusion of new initiatives for developing small unit leader intuition and adaptability in IW. Following this are recommendations for inculcating critical thinking and decision-making skills in small unit leaders by adopting methods of instruction found in Outcomes Based Training and Education and Adaptive Leaders Methodology as well as the experiential based learning that immersive training environments provide.
- Altering Leadership Thinking And Organizational Behavior Through Web Services (local copy), by Gilbert, DAU Senior Service College Fellowship, Apr 2010
- NDU Center for Technology and National Security Policy
- Agile Leaders, Agile Institutions: Educating Adaptive and Innovative Leaders for Today and Tomorrow (local copy), by Gehler, SSI, Aug 2005
- Developing Adaptive Leaders: the Crucible Experience of Operation Iraqi Freedom (local copy), by Wong, SSI, July 2004
- A Charismatic Dimension of Military Leadership? (local copy), paper by Tritten and Keithly, Naval Doctrine Command, May 1995
- Military Application of Performance-Enhancement Psychology (local copy), by Zinsser et al, in Military Review, Sep-Oct 2004
- Zero-Defect Leaders: No Second Chance? (local copy), by Steele, in Military Review, Sep-Oct 2004 - examines mistakes by Chester Nimitz, John Lejeune, George S. Patton, Jr., and Henry H. "Hap" Arnold, and how success still came for these four
- The Recogition-Primed Decision Model (local copy), by Ross et al, in Military Review, Jul-Aug 2004
- "Klein, S. Wolf, Laura G. Militellio, and Carolyn E.Zsambok show that skilled decisionmakers usually generate a good COA [course of action] on their first try. J.G. Johnson and M. Raab replicated this finding, extending it to show that when skilled decisionmakers abandon their initial COA in favor of a later one, the subsequent COA’s quality is significantly lower than the first one."
- Deconstructing Army Leadership (local copy), by Paparone, in Military Review, Jan-Feb 2004
- Training and Developing Army Leaders (local copy), by Steele and Walters, in Military Review, Jul-Aug 2001 - talks about the charter and initial results of the ATLDP (see below)
- Developing a Leadership Philosophy (local copy), by LeBoeuf, in Military Review, May-Jun 1999
- Preparing Potential Senior Army Leaders for the Future: An Assessment of Leader Development Efforts in the Post–Cold War Era, by Johnson, a 2002 RAND report
- The Army Training and Leader Development Panel (ATLDP) reports to the Army
- U. S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences
- See also ARI reports on critical thinking
- Leader Development, U. S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences
- Leader Identity, Individual Differences, and Leader Self-development (local copy), by Key-Roberts et al, ARI Technical Report 1310, Sep 2012
- Applications of Strengths-Based Leadership Theory for the U.S. Army (local copy), by Key-Roberts and Budreau, ARI Technical Report 1321, Sep 2012
- Language and Social Dynamics (local copy), by Pennebaker and Chung, ARI Technical Report 1318, Sep 2012
- Development of a Competency Model for Civil–Military Teaming (local copy), by Ross et al, ARI Research Report 1960, Sep 2012
- Junior Leader Training Development in Operational Units (local copy), by Pax et al, ARI Technical Report 1305, Apr 2012
- Impact of the Phase II Infantry Advanced Leader Course (ALC) (local copy), by Pleban et al, ARI Research Report 1959, July 2012
- Advisor Influence Strategies: 10 Cross-Cultural Scenarios for Discussion and Self-Assessment (Instructor’s Manual) (local copy), by Zbylut et al, ARI Research Product 2010-05, Sep 2010
- Identification of Brigade Command Competencies (local copy), by Wolters et al, ARI Study Report 2011-02, June 2011
- Training Platoon Leader Adaptive Thinking Skills in a Classroom Setting (local copy), by Pleban et al, ARI Research Report 1948, June 2011
- Winning the War and the Relationships: Preparing Military Officers for Negotiations with Non-Combatants (local copy), by Ben-Yoav Nobel et al,
Aug 2007, ARI report
- Training Adaptable Leaders: Lessons from Research and Practice (local copy), Oct 2005, ARI report
- Interactivity, Communication, and Trust: Further Studies of Leadership in the Electronic Age (local copy), Mar 2005, ARI report
- Competency Based Future Leadership Requirements (local copy), July 2004, ARI report
- MINDPRINT: Developing the Soldiers and Leaders of Objective Force and Beyond (local copy), Jan 2004, ARI report
- Training Future Force Leaders to Make Decisions Using Digital Information (local copy), Dec 2003, ARI report
- "... digital information such as video sensors and detailed map overlays will replace probabilistic cues from the environment."
- "While the decisions themselves do not differ, the decision-making process and the information used are different with digital information than with traditional cues. Decision making with digital information is more analytical ...."
- "Spatial orientation will become a key issue and skill in the electronic battlefield."
- A Scenario-Generation Package for
Assessing and Training Leader Skills (local copy), Jul 2004, ARI research product
- Ratings of Decision-Making Attributes in a Junior Leader Course (local copy), Oct 2002, ARI research note
Cadre and students provided ratings of decision-making attributes during two junior leader courses. Results showed that cadre ratings of students’ attributes improved over time, whereas student self-ratings did not show improvements. Initial student ratings tended to be inflated.
- Promoting Realistic Self-Assessment as the Basis for Effective Leader Self-Development, ARI Research Note 2004-05
- Development of a Conditional Reasoning Measure of Team Orientation (local copy, PDF), Sep 2004, ARI Research Note RN 2004-10 (DOC file)
- Leadership Development: A Review of Industry Best Practices (local copy), ARI report
- Developing Adaptive Proficiency
in Special Forces Officers (local copy), U. S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences
- Developing Leaders in A Changing Army, U. S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences
- Training for Future Operations: Digital Leaders' Transformation Insights (local copy), Nov 2002, ARI report
- Transformational Leadership and Follower Development, U. S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences (They've juggled their URLs, without autoforwarding, and this topic area is lost, but you might still ask them for their research on it.)
- ARI newsletters
- Critical Thinking Training for Army Schoolhouse and Distance Learning (local copy), ARI Newsletter, August 2003 - "High Pay-off Skills to deal with the uncertain"
- Training Adaptive Leaders (local copy), ARI Newsletter, May 2003 - "train a performance - a thinking performance" - using the Think Like a Commander vignettes to improve ability to identify critical information
- Tacit Knowledge for Military Leadership (local copy), ARI Newsletter, Spring 2001 - "Tacit knowledge scores, a better predictor of leadership effectiveness"
- Training Critical Thinking Skills for Battle Command: How to Think, Not What to Think (local copy), ARI Newsletter, Spring 2001 - "Improve critical thinking to improve battle command tactical performance"
- Training and Assessment of Decision-Making Skills in Virtual Environments (local copy), ARI Newsletter, Spring 2001 - "This research showed a linkage between decision-making and situation awareness"
- Online Learning of Complex Skills (local copy), ARI Newsletter, Winter 2002 - potential to improve growing of tacit knowledge
- Future Leadership, Old Issues, New Methods (local copy), SSI publication - leader development, decisionmaking, chaos theory, educating junior officers, and cognitive aids for commanders
- Development of Strategic-Level Leaders (local copy), ICAF research paper by Fitton -- traces history of concept of Army leadership doctrine, from WW II to 1990's, with references to the doctrine and reference publications along the way
- General George C. Marshall and the Army Staff - a Study in Effective Staff Leadership (local copy), by Munch, USA
- Program Manager (PM) Magazine
- Acquisition Review Quarterly
- Management: Towards a Unified Field Theory (local copy), by Pollock, in Acquisition Review Quarterly, Winter 2000, "general review of three books written by management theorists of high repute" includes sections on
- Situational Leadership
- Jaque's Methods of Mental Processing
- Jaque's Orders of Information Complexity
- Nonlinear Development
- Activation or Arousal Theory
- The Relationship Between Leader-Member Exchange and Commitment and Organizational Citizenship Behavior (local copy), by Truckenbrodt, in Acquisition Review Quarterly, Summer 2000, about the "leader-member exchange theory of leadership, which focuses on the two-way relationship between supervisors and subordinates"
- Leadership Styles for the Five Stages of Radical Change (local copy), by Reardon, Reardon, and Rowe, in Acquisition Review Quarterly, Spring 1998, discusses the leadership styles best suited to each phase of the change process.
- Changing the Way We Assess Leadership (local copy), by Hall, in Acquisition Review Quarterly, Fall 1997, general treatment of the subject, includes the following appendices
- Appendix A - Kotter's Comparison of Management and Leadership
- Appendix B - The Eight-Stage Process of Creating Major Change
- Government Accountability Office (GAO), formerly General Accounting Office (GAO)
- CIA Briefings of Presidential Candidates, 1952-1992
- Strategic Human Resource Management: Aligning with the Mission (local copy), from the Office of Personnel Management (OPM)
- Supervisors in the Federal Government: A Wake-Up Call (local copy), from the Office of Personnel Management (OPM)
- We conducted the study to assess the status of current efforts in Federal agencies to identify, select, develop, and evaluate first-level supervisors. In brief, we found that:
(1) agencies need to do a better job of selecting and developing first-level supervisors; This study should serve as a wake-up call for agencies to take immediate action to address a serious problem that has the potential to worsen. Agencies must make the selection and development of first-level supervisors a top human resource management priority.
(2) most agencies still do not identify employees with supervisory potential and develop them for future leadership positions;
(3) supervisors believe that leadership development is given a low priority; and,
(4) supervisors take issue with the way their performance is evaluated. They feel that the ability to get work done through people should be given more weight.
- Management Benchmark Study, from Office of Science, Dept of Energy -- includes chapters on innovation, leadership, creativity, change management, and communication
- Generalship - Its Diseases and Their Cure - A Study of The Personal Factor in Command, by Major-General J.F.C. Fuller - includes interesting appendix which looks at 100 generals over 2200 years and their age when they achieved significant victories
- Personality Styles of Effective Soldiers (local copy), by Russell, in Jan-Feb 2000 Military Review
- Other Research ___[return to top]
- Articles and Statements ___[return to top]
- See 2001 version of AU-24, Concepts for Air Force Leadership, with more than 70 online articles
- See SLS Reference page, especially the journals
- Narcissism and Toxic Leaders (local copy), by Doty and Fenlason, in Military Review, Jan-Feb, 2013
- In each of the practical examples discussed above, the soldiers who bore the brunt of the leader’s narcissistic and toxic behavior experienced a form of leadership that does not motivate, build trust, or improve the organization. In fact, it does just the opposite. Yes, most of these leaders were very successful in their careers, accomplished the
mission, and most often met the commander’s intent. However, authentic and transformational leadership is about more than just accomplishing the mission and getting a promotion. It also includes developing and empowering subordinates, building trust, and leaving a unit better than it was before. Toxic and narcissistic leaders do not do that.
- Although we have focused on narcissism and toxic leaders, the reality is that America’s allvolunteer Army expects and deserves the very best from its leaders, narcissistic, toxic, or not. Leaders and commanders need to be the best they can be. More emphasis on mentoring, self-awareness, selfregulation, and emotional intelligence will help to ensure our leaders are the best they can be and our soldiers experience the type of leadership they richly deserve.
- The Victory Disease (local copy), by Karcher, posted in the Army Professional Writing Collection - "According to Dunnigan and Macedonia, the Victory Disease threatens a nation that has a history of military prowess and manifests itself in three symptoms: arrogance, complacency, and established patterns of fighting."
- Managing Oneself, by Drucker
"In a few hundred years, when the history of our time will be written from a long term perspective, I think it is very probable that the most important event these historians will see is not technology, it is not the Internet, it is not e-commerce. It is an unprecedented change in the human condition. For the first time -- and I mean that literally -- for the first time, substantial and rapidly growing numbers of people have choices. For the first time, they will have to manage themselves. And let me say, we are totally unprepared for it."
For help in assessing yourself, see Self-Assessment Tools
- Transformational Leadership, by Colonel Mark A. Homrig, AWC
- Leadership Is Flesh and Blood, by Admiral Carlisle A. H. Trost, USN
- Expeditionary Air Force Leaders: Cognitive Skills for the Naturalistic Battlespace, by Thomas et al, in Air & Space Power Chronicles
- Leading = Influencing: A Simple Equation, by Barnes, in Air & Space Power Chronicles
- Strategic Leader Readiness and Competencies for Asymmetric Warfare, by Williams, in Parameters, Summer 2003
- Transforming Strategic Leader Education for the 21st-Century Army, by McCausland and Martin, in Parameters, Autumn 2001
- Generalship: Qualities, Instincts, and Character, by Meigs, in Parameters, Summer 2001 -- developed from a presentation given by the author to the Brigadier General Training Course at Fort Leavenworth
- "... generals, like athletes, are made not born, despite the fact that some are born with a natural ability that gives them more promise than the rest of us. But all of us need development to progress to the level of competence and character our potential allows."
- discusses the "list of essential characteristics of generalship" - intellect, energy, selflessness, and humanity
- Strategic Art - the New Discipline for 21st Century Leaders (local copy), by Maj Gen Chilcoat, Army War College
- "It's always easier to ask forgiveness than it is to get permission."
--- Rear Admiral Grace Hopper, computer pioneer
- 15 Steps to Professional Development - “Spitting on Superman’s Cape” and Other Dos and Don’ts Throughout Your Career (local copy), by Houck, in The Leadership News, a quarterly newsletter on Leadership and diversity in the Coast Guard
[return to top]